Genius!! Pure genius! This is a major challenge with disaster preparedness today, and learning lessons from history and previous disasters are essential to minimizing impacts from future disasters. Case and point NYC… With Hurricane Sandy, the storm surge was referenced as being a record surge.. even higher than the hurricane that occurred in 1821. This still begs the question – “what if the hurricane of 1821 happened again today… what would the impact be?” Additionally, as stated in http://stevengoddard.wordpress.com/2012/11/15/1821-hurricane-struck-new-york-at-low-tide/, the 1821 storm actually struck at LOW tide.. meaning the Category 3 storm then could have produced a tide level even higher than Sandy had it struck 12 hours earlier or later. Again.. this means for preparedness… “THIS COULD HAPPEN…” Again, great advances in technology, now we just have to put it together to answer the core questions… what if it happened again today, and how could we be more prepared…
There are scales for tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes, and other natural hazards. In the aftermath of Hurricane Isaac, there were numerous calls for the National Hurricane Center to add back in a storm surge scale into the hurricane scale. In an August 31st article from the New York Times, “Climatologists like Kerry Emanuel of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have said that any classification should include both wind speed and surge. Otherwise, he argues, coastal residents can be easily misled.”
In 2010, the National Hurricane Center removed verbage in the Saffir-Simpson Scale that referred to storm surge in hurricanes. In a one-page document posted on the National Hurricane Center (NHC) website earlier this week, the NHC Public Affairs staff shared the reason why storm surge was removed from that scale. Additionally, they elaborated on why: Continue reading
In the meteorological community, hurricanes were given names in the mid 20th century. In an article earlier this year titled how hurricanes are named, “Names are presumed to be far easier to remember than numbers and technical terms,” the World Meteorological Organization explains on its website. “Many agree that appending names to storms makes it easier for the media to report on tropical cyclones, heightens interest in warnings and increases community preparedness.”
But there are times when storms are not named by official channels. Continue reading
When looking at mapping for disasters, one of the last places you would expect me to go topic wise is to look at Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for K-12.
There are four phases of emergency management – mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. As emergency managers we often think of schools as a place to encourage preparedness – knowing what to do when disaster strikes. But schools have so much more to offer us and there are some things we have to offer them as well. Continue reading
Many people are aware of the Enhanced Fujita (EF) Scale for tornadoes. Most also know about the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. However there is also a rating scale for Winter Storms that fewer people know about. In 2004, Paul Kocin and Louis Uccellini from the National Weather Service (Kocin and Uccellini, 2004) developed the Northeast Snowfall Impact Scale (NESIS). Below is a description from the National Climate Data Center (NCDC) website for NESIS:
“The index differs from other meteorological indices in that it uses population information in addition to meteorological measurements. Thus NESIS gives an indication of a storm’s societal impacts. This scale was developed because of the impact Northeast snowstorms can have on the rest of the country in terms of transportation and economic impact.
NESIS scores are a function of the area affected by the snowstorm, the amount of snow, and the number of people living in the path of the storm. The diagram below illustrates how NESIS values are calculated within a geographical information system (GIS). The aerial distribution of snowfall and population information are combined in an equation that calculates a NESIS score which varies from around one for smaller storms to over ten for extreme storms. The raw score is then converted into one of the five NESIS categories. The largest NESIS values result from storms producing heavy snowfall over large areas that include major metropolitan centers. Continue reading